EU-Taiwan Advanced Vehicle Safety Technologies Forum
The forum examined key trends and innovations in the rapidly-evolving automotive industry that is shifting from semi-autonomous vehicle features to an era of completely autonomous vehicles. The forum featured opening remarks by the guests of honour and sessions on the topics of autonomous driving, road safety enhancement in the EU and Taiwan, vehicle safety regulations in Taiwan, connected driving technologies and motorcycle safety technologies. Panel discussions featuring all of the speakers were held at the end of both the morning and afternoon sessions. The forum was concluded with a VIP dinner, which was attended the guests of honour, speakers and members of the ECCT's Automotive committee.
The guests of honour making opening remarks were ECCT Chairman Bernd Barkey, MoTC Administrative Deputy Minister Fan Chih-Ku, EETO Head Madeleine Majorenko and GTO Director Andreas Hergenröther.
Speakers from ECCT member companies Mercedes Benz, Audi, Bosch and Ford gave presentations covering a number of subjects. They were Dr Stefan Greiner, Director, Chassis Development, Audi China; Dr Bernhard Morys, R&D, Daimler Greater China, Mercedes-Benz; Thomas Lich, Senior Expert and Project Manager, Bosch Accident Research, Bosch Corporate Research, Germany; Wilko-Gordon Block, Head of Department, Strategic Marketing & Communication, Two-Wheeler & Powersports Division, Bosch Corporation Japan and Pete Hardigan, Director of Sustainability, Environment & Safety Engineering, Asia Pacific, Ford Motor Company.
Speakers representing European authorities gave presentations on current and projected European regulations related to the automotive sector. They were Casto López Benítez, Policy Officer, Road Safety Unit, Directorate General for Mobility & Transport, European Commission and Jan Michael Schüngeler, Assistant Head, Intelligent Transport Systems and Automated Driving Division, Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure, Germany.
Speakers representing the Taiwan government or institutions gave an overview of the current regulatory and testing environment in Taiwan. They were Dr Chou Ja-ching, Senior Transportation Analyst, Information System Division, Institute of Transportation, MoTC; Simon Hsu, Director, Vehicle Safety Certification Center and Weber Lee, Manager, Automotive Research & Testing Center.
In his remarks MoTC Administrative Deputy Minister Fan Chih-ku said that as technology advances to make vehicles safer, regulations have to keep pace and be updated in line with international standards. He noted authorities and institutes in Taiwan are conducting research on autonomous driving and will endeavor to keep pace with international developments, which is important to allow local players in the automotive industry to align with the best international practices. He remarked that it was important that vehicle and parts makers are involved in the process. He expressed the wish for deeper cooperation in automotive-related issues with the European Union.
In her remarks Madeleine Majorenko noted that the forum is important given that road safety is a global concern, which requires comprehensive regulations to keep the roads, vehicles and road users safe. She emphasized that the EU has comprehensive legislation and programmes aimed at all of these aspects as well as to improve the behaviour of drivers. She added that the EU is a world leader in vehicle technology which is constantly making advances but it is the responsibility of regulators to provide an enabling environment for these technologies while taking into account reliability and safety. She expressed a willingness to engage in further cooperation with Taiwan authorities to share information and best practices.
In his remarks ECCT Chairman Bernd Barkey noted that developments in the automotive industry are moving rapidly. Ten years ago, almost no one was talking about the subject of autonomous cars. Now, the only debate is about how long it will be before they are commonplace. Many cars already feature lane assist, parking assist and other autonomous features. Mass testing of completely autonomous cars has been going on for years in many countries including Europe, the US and China. By some estimates, 15% of vehicles will be fully autonomous by 2030, 50% will be semi-autonomous while the other 35% will have significant built in active safety features. The era of mobility on demand, connected cars and autonomous vehicles will have profound consequences for the automotive and many other industry sectors and our lives. One major positive consequence that autonomous driving promises is a reduction in accidents caused by human error by up to 90%. Barkey stressed that the government and industry need to work together to produce the most appropriate vehicle safety standards and regulatory framework to enable a rapid and smooth transition to the autonomous driving era.
In his remarks GTO Director Jan Michael Schüngeler said that car manufacturing is one of Germany's most important industries and therefore a top priority for the German government. He went on to give some of the latest examples of safety, semi-autonomous and comfort standards available in German cars. He noted that the German parliament is about to introduce legislation that would enable more semi-autonomous features, as long as the driver maintains ultimate control. He also noted that the government is providing large subsidies for pure electric vehicles (EV) and hybrids as part of its ambitions to increase the percentage of EVs and reduce carbon emissions.
Topic: Opportunities and challenges on the way towards autonomous driving
Speaker: Dr. Stefan Greiner, Director Chassis Development, Audi China
The speaker noted that automated driving is one of the top three areas of innovation in the automotive industry along with electrification and connectivity and that safety, enhanced convenience and efficiency are the main goals of automated driving.
We are moving from assisted to piloted driving, giving more decisions to the car. Automated driving can also adapt driving style to reduce fuel consumption. In terms of convenience, finding parking is a major hassle, particularly in urban areas. Parking in tight spaces will no longer be a chore with automated parking features now available in many cars, which not only makes parking easier but allows cars to be parked closer together (just 2 centimetres apart), thereby saving space. Meanwhile, more efficient use of roads using information from connected cars and big data analysis could improve traffic flow.
In terms of safety, since human error is the major cause of accidents (90% of accidents, compared to other factors such as the weather), there is great potential to reduce accidents using driver assistance and integral safety functions to support drivers. Reducing the incidents of accidents not only benefits people but also reduces costs related to emergency and medical services and the insurance industry.
A major factor in accidents is driver distraction. The huge increase in the use of smart phones is directly correlated to an increase in accidents. Autonomous driving would remove the conflict between wanting to remain connected and being distracted.
Automated functions will be able to anticipate the next manoeuvre and drive more efficiently. For example, when driving downhill, energy from braking can be reused.
Autonomous driving will of course also give people time to spend on a wider range activities than just listening to music.
Audi plans to introduce its congestion pilot (congestion chauffeur) in the United States next year. The feature provides highly automated driving in congested areas that allows "hands-off" driving at speeds of up to 60 kilometres per hour (km/h) on freeways and freeway-standard roads. It provides extra convenience and extra safety, because drivers will not tired by manually driving through congested roads.
However, this technology is still not allowed in many countries, which means that the support of government is needed to enable the use of these technologies.
Greiner introduced the different levels of autonomous driving:
Level 1 – Assisted driving: The driver permanently in charge of both longitudinal and lateral control and can take over immediately.
Level 2 – Partly automated: The driver permanently monitors and can take over at any time while the vehicle takes charge of longitudinal and lateral control for a certain time and in certain situations.
Level 3 – Highly automated: There is a big leap from level 2 to level 3 because in level 3 the driver does not need to monitor permanently. The vehicle takes charge of longitudinal and lateral control for a certain time and under certain situations. The need to take over is announced with sufficient advanced warning.
Level 4 – Fully automated: The driver takes over only when leaving a domain, such as a highway. The vehicle takes full charge of longitudinal and lateral control in defined scenarios. The system is capable of establishing a risk-minimized state in all situations.
Level 5 – Driverless: The vehicle takes full charge of longitudinal and lateral control. The system is capable of establishing a risk-minimized state in all situations. No driver, steering wheel or controls are necessary.
According to Greiner, Level 4 is doable but would be expensive. In his opinion, we are not yet ready for level 5. To get to level 5 and implement automated driving, action is required in three areas: technology, infrastructure and regulation.
In terms of technology, a large number of sensors and redundant sensor technologies are needed to ensure that surroundings are reliably identified. Sensors need to be able to "see" several hundred metres ahead and behind the car. Connectivity also has to be improved as do online mapping features. Cars also need redundancy systems.
In terms of infrastructure, standards have to set and be implemented consistently, for example, for road markings, emergency lanes and wildlife fences. Autonomous cars will need to consistently be able to take the right action when facing complex and difficult choices such as intersections with multiple lanes and confusing arrows pointing in different directions.
In terms of regulatory issues, companies need to be able to conduct tests in real conditions, which is not yet legal in many countries. There is also a lack of homologation standards for level 3 vehicles. In addition, data protection issues need to be clarified while driver behaviour laws need to be modified, for example to allow drivers to use mobile phones when cars are driving themselves.
Greiner concluded that while Audi is working towards the era of autonomous vehicles, it ultimately wants systems that give drivers the option of either autonomous or self-driving.
Topic: Automated and connected driving - The strategy of the federal government
Speaker: Jan Michael Schüngeler, Assistant Head, Intelligent Transport Systems and Automated Driving Division, Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure, Germany
In addition to the potential to increase traffic safety, efficiency and reduce emissions, the German government also wants to promote industry development.
The German government is committed to creating the right framework for automated driving and has invited all stakeholders to contribute to developing a strategy for areas including infrastructure, legislation, interconnectivity, cyber-security and data protection. Various working groups have been set up to work on each aspect. Legislation will allow the use of new technologies but will not absolve drivers of responsibility.
The German government is funding basic research on new vehicle systems such as automated driving and innovative vehicles. Germany's federal cabinet has already drafted an amendment to the 1968 Convention on Road Traffic (Vienna Convention), which would put automated vehicle systems on the same legal footing as self-driving.
German authorities are moving ahead to allow the testing of autonomous vehicles in urban environments and to allow faster speeds for autonomous cars. They have also proposed guidelines on cyber security. They are also actively involved in the EC body looking at connected driving. They are also cooperating with authorities from other EU member states and mainland China.
In 2015 G7 ministers issued a joint declaration on automated and connected driving and set up a working group of G7 transport ministers.
In Germany, the digital motorway testbed was set up on an autobahn to allow industry players to test cars in real conditions. It aims to promote innovation, research, design infrastructure and create public acceptance of autonomous driving.
Schüngeler cited two examples of projects using the testbed to test mobile edge computing to reduce latency and platoon driving.
Topic: Vehicle technology for enhanced road safety in the EU - Direction and challenges for the regulatory framework
Speaker: Casto López Benítez, Policy Officer, Road Safety Unit, Directorate General for Mobility & Transport, European Commission
Benítez began by citing statistics showing how road safety in EU had been a success story given the huge and ever-decreasing number of fatalities, since the peak in the early 1970s, despite an increase in the number of vehicles and distances travelled. However, he noted that the trend had reversed in the last couple of years. It is not yet clear why.
Benítez noted that more than half of fatalities involve people outside the car, which shows that measures to protect people in cars are already very good. The highest fatalities are among young men, which means that more education is needed for this segment of the population. Another trend that needs be addressed is the issue of aging drivers. Cars need to be adapted to make it easier for older people to read dashboards and use instruments as well as offer more in-car protection because old people are frail.
Benítez went on to describe the EU's vehicle type approval process. There are 70 topics covered, eight legal instruments, which each member state has to adopt, and 61 UNECE regulations that are mandatory.
This may change in the future because the entire type approval framework is under review. The Commission has presented a proposal (in January 2016) for a new regulation intended to reinforce independence and the quality of testing and introduce effective market surveillance. The legal text is to be submitted to parliament for review.
As part of the review of the General Safety Regulation the following active safety measures are being considered: Autonomous emergency braking, emergency braking display, intelligent speed adaptation, lane keeping assist, driver distraction/drowsiness monitoring, alcohol interlock interface (which authorities in France want to introduce given that 25% of fatalities result from alcohol misuse), tyre pressure monitoring and reversing detection features. In addition a crash event data recorder is being considered that would record and store data in the event of an accident so that it could be analysed later.
In addition, the following passive safety measures are under discussion: safety-belt reminders (for all seats), frontal, side and rear impact crash programmes, truck front end design programme, truck rear underrun protection and lateral protection and bus fire safety. The Pedestrian Safety Regulation is also being reviewed.
While driver assistance can prevent or compensate for human error, there are a number of challenges to overcome: Regulatory changes take a long time. In addition, new automotive systems are very complex, which makes definition of performance requirements and tests of conformity very difficult.
In terms of road safety challenges, regulations that prohibit the use of mobile devices are incompatible with driver assistance systems while it is possible that automation functions could be misused.
Work is ongoing. In January this year the Commission set up GEAR 2030 to debate the challenges for the automotive industry, analyse and discuss the key trends and devise jointly-agreed roadmaps for the future. This builds on the Connected Driving (or C-ITS) Platform that was set up in 2014 to develop a shared vision on the interoperable deployment of C-ITS in the EU, to provide policy recommendations for a roadmap and a deployment strategy.
Topic: Cooperative ITS (connected vehicles)
Speaker: Dr Chou Ja-ching, Senior Transportation Analyst, Information System Division, Institute of Transportation, MoTC
Chou noted that Taiwan authorities are still looking at spectrum use in the EU and the US for reference. While they are different they are interoperable. Chou gave details of a connected vehicle pilot study conducted on Taiwan's expressways, which will be expanded to other areas. He also showed a video of an alarm warning system that goes off when a vehicle is running a red light or a motorcycle is cutting in front of a car.
Topic: Introduction of vehicle safety regulations in Taiwan
Speaker: Simon Hsu, Director, Vehicle Safety Certification Center (VSCC)
The speaker gave an overview of the current status and ongoing developments of vehicle safety regulations in Taiwan. He noted that Taiwan authorities try to keep up with changes in international standards in synch with the EU and the United States. Authorities are also involved in the APEC group promoting harmonization in Asia.
Besides ongoing reform related to safety, there is also a focus on social concerns such as low floor buses and disabled access as well as environmental issues such as safety for electric motorcycles.
There are 56 standards for larger vehicles, such as public buses and coaches, 55 for trucks and 29 for trailers. A new requirement for buses and coaches is a driving vision assistant system which helps to provide vision in blind spots. Authorities are working on automatic braking for large vehicles, which will become a testing requirement for manufacturers in future.
Authorities are watching UNECE developments regarding rear impact requirements. They are still deciding if these will be implemented in Taiwan.
Topic: Introduction to ADAS and connected vehicle development
Speaker: Weber Lee, Manager, Automotive Research & Testing Center (ARTC)
The speaker looked at trends and technology available related to Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). He noted that lane departure warning systems can effectively reduce accidents by 17%. Other popular ADAS are adaptive cruise control and drowsiness detection. A huge increase in sales of cars with ADAS features, such as lane departure warning systems, is projected, not just for luxury vehicles but also for mainstream vehicles. This is partly being spurred by changes in regulations. For example, the US Department of Transport's National Highway Safety Administration and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety announced in March 2017 an historic commitment by 20 automakers, representing 99% of the US auto market, that they would make automatic braking a standard feature on virtually all cars no later than 2020.
Lee noted that Taiwan authorities had been studying and collecting ADAS regulations from Europe, the US and Japan since 2013. He remarked that it is important for Taiwan to follow international trends given that the value of production of automotive electronics is worth over NT$150 billion annually. Taiwanese companies produce components in six main areas: power train, vehicle security, safety and control, infotainment, body electronics and comfort and convenience. The shift towards semi-autonomous and fully-autonomous driving will increase the level of electronic components in vehicles, which presents huge potential business for local manufacturers. Several ICT companies previously focused on other applications are already shifting to auto electronics to take advantage of the trend.
Lee went on to introduce the ARTC, which offers testing and validation services to the government and public and private companies. It has 12 labs for integrated testing as well as 12 pilot tracks for testing vehicles and components. According to Lee, the ARTC has invested heavily in testing features for autonomous driving such as connected and active safety and driver assist such as active steering, auto brake and piloted parking systems.
Topic: Mercedes-Benz Intelligent Drive Next Level
Speaker: Dr Bernhard Morys, R&D, Daimler Greater China, Mercedes-Benz
The speaker introduced driver assistance systems, focusing on what is already available in Mercedes' new E-Class vehicles. Morys stressed that the latest features are designed with the safety and convenience of customers in mind and not for engineers. A lot research and analysis over many years in Europe and abroad was conducted on traffic accidents in order to discover the real reasons for accidents and thereby work out the best ways to avoid them, and, when they are unavoidable, to mitigate the impact on passengers.
Systems are aimed at helping the driver to do as much as possible to avoid accidents with the trade-off of not annoying driver too much with too many warning signals, especially audio signals.
The most common accidents are caused by not stopping in time due to insufficient distance, changing lanes, insufficient light, weariness and pedestrians at pedestrian crossings. To help drivers in these cases, Mercedes vehicles have been fitted with active braking assist, lane keeping assist, active blind spot assist, adaptive high beam assist, attention assist and pedestrian detection systems.
Sensors in the new models have long range radar of up to 200 metres as well as more advanced short range radar. Since the last generation of models, the new version of distance pilot steering works at speeds up to 210 km/h. It also reacts to standing vehicles at speeds up to 60 km/h. The current system is better at detecting lane markings. Even without lane-markings, steering support works at speeds of up to 130 km/h by orientation using surrounding vehicles and parallel structures.
The new version also has a less annoying hands-on-detection feature, which does not alert the driver based on a fixed time her hands are off the steering but only if there is road curvature. Now, there is an optical warning in the instrument cluster if the driver keeps her hands off the steering wheel. Additional acoustic warnings and optical warnings are signaled in the Head-Up-Display. If the driver fails to react to continuous warnings, the car will automatically slow down, after which increasing braking force will be applied until the car come to a full stop. Hazard warning lights are activated when vehicle's speed drops below 60 km/h and the parking brake is activated at standstill. The driver is able to take over at any time in this graduated process by steering. This feature is especially useful during a medical emergency, such as if the driver has a heart attack, stroke or seizure.
Morys went on to show how an additional function of active braking works to detect and take action in response to potential collision danger due to cross-traffic if, for example another car runs a red light.
According to tests run by Mercedes, with this feature, collision avoidance is possible up to approximately 60 km/h while there is a significant reduction of accident severity up to 70 km/h. It also reacts to stationary vehicles and pedestrians with evasive steering assist.
The emergency braking function is automatically activated if the car is travelling at high speed and in danger of hitting a slow or stationary vehicle.
The active lane keeping assist issues a haptic warning and active intervention by single side braking if the driver leaves the lane unintentionally. The active blind spot assist flashes a visual warning on the outside mirror if the turning signal is activated and an additional audible warning if the vehicle is in or about to enter a blind spot.
In the event of an imminent side collision detected by additional radar sensors, air chambers in the
side bolsters of the seat backrests are inflated and the driver or front passenger is accelerated towards the center of the vehicle. The addition distance from the door reduces the risk of injury.
The car's light system is extremely sophisticated. Headlamps have 84 individually-controlled high-performance LEDs, which can be switched on and off individually to suit conditions.
Morys concluded that while the current range of vehicles are designed to provide a high level of comfort and safety, they are still assisted systems (level 2) and not autonomous driving systems. Getting to level 3 will be a big leap which will require adjustments to the law as well as further technical progress. To expedite progress he urged action in the legal system in Taiwan to allow for the testing of advanced vehicles or to give exemptions to certain functions.
Topic: Ford's technology advancements
Speaker: Pete Hardigan, Director of Sustainability, Environment & Safety Engineering, Asia Pacific, Ford Motor Company
Given aging population globally, it is projected that seniors will account for about 24% of drivers by 2025. Older drivers tend to have weaker eye sight, bone structure and restricted movements. These factors need to be taken into account when designing vehicles. For example, vehicles will need improved touch screens, door handles, easy to fill capless fuel filler and better seatbelts that are wider to spread the force and are more comfortable. Hardigan showed a design of a wide seat belt made of a silk-type material that is much more comfortable than traditional seatbelts.
Like other car companies, Ford is working on improvements to ADAS systems including driver alert, lane keeping and adaptive cruise control systems but Hardigan stressed the point that Ford is focused on the mass market, which means that it is important to drive costs down to make these features affordable.
Ford's research shows that visual distraction is a significant factor in causing accidents. The company is developing systems to address this and to respond to emergencies. In the event of an accident where an airbag deploys or the fuel pump shuts off, Ford "SYNC's" Emergency Assistance uses a paired mobile phone to contact emergency operators and give them the exact location. The microphone is turned on so that anyone in the vehicle can speak to the operator, even if they can't reach the controls. Hardigan spoke from personal experience of the value of the system. (His wife was in an accident and the system called 911 automatically and sent coordinates of the location.) He noted that the system is available in Taiwan in Mandarin.
Ford's MyKey system allows parents to programme a key and reinforce "good driving habits". For example, it can be programmed to alert the driver when a certain speed is exceeded or to not allow the music system to be turned on unless the driver is wearing a seatbelt or to set a maximum audio volume while driving.
Ford has been offering training for novice drivers in Taiwan since 2009. Part of the training makes use of drunk driving and drugged driving suits to give drivers a simulated experience of how their normal senses and movements are impaired when they are under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
Topic: Accident research on ABS to improve motorcycle safety
Speaker: Thomas Lich, Senior Expert and Project Manager, Bosch Accident Research, Bosch Corporate Research, Germany
Lich is part of Bosch's Accident Research team, which has been conducting traffic accident and vehicle safety research since 1995. While most of the research has been done in Germany, in recent years this has been extended to countries such as China, India and Brazil. The research looks at all kinds of accidents, statistical analysis of vehicle safety systems with the objective of devising improvements.
Every fourth fatality in Taiwan is on a two or three-wheeled vehicle which shows how important it is to improve safety for these types of vehicles. Statistical analysis going back to 1992 shows that there has been a gradual drop in traffic-related injuries in Taiwan in line with regulatory changes such as the mandatory helmet law, drunk driving penalties, speeding fines and, more recently, rear seatbelts. However, since 2006, there has been a steady rise in the number of accidents causing fatalities, even though the number of registered vehicles has not risen by that much. Lich wanted to find the root causes of this rise through accident research. Using police reports is helpful but not scientific enough. What is needed is to go to the accident site, measure and collect data parameters, get hospital records of the type of injuries traffic accident victims suffered and try to do accurate simulations of the events. Lich showed a video of his team in action in the aftermath of an accident scene measuring skid marks on the road and collecting other evidence needed to reconstruct a simulation.
After evaluating data from police and hospital reports in 2014, Lich's team found that in Taiwan 85% of traffic casualties and 61% of fatalities involve motorcycles. A high proportion of accidents (42%) occurred while the vehicle was turning into or crossing a road. Research shows that rider behaviour and a rider's reactions are essential for crash avoidance. Based on research in Germany, 27% of accidents occurred due to incorrect braking and another 20% due to insufficient brake power. Motorcycle Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS) can avoid or mitigate accidents in these cases by preventing wheel locking, keeping riders stable and allowing safe braking by optimising brake distance in all conditions. Lich showed a video which demonstrated how motorcycles fitted with ABS work. He also showed a simulation of how ABS would have allowed a rider to avoid a crash.
Based on statistical and simulated research, Bosch Accident Research estimates that every fourth crash with casualties in Taiwan could be prevented by motorcycle ABS while 31% would see reduced collision speed and therefore mitigation (less severe injuries). Moreover, ABS has been shown to be effective in all motorcycle classes, not just 125cc and above, which is the target of Taiwan's recent regulatory change. Lich admitted that this is just an estimate and more data from Taiwan is needed to confirm it. He concluded that more accident research using scientific approach is needed. However, evidence is clear from research in other countries that ABS is a powerful safety technology that can keep motorcycles stable and prevent them from falling down when applying emergency braking.
Topic: Advanced two-wheeler safety systems
Speaker: Wilko-Gordon Block, Head of Department, Strategic Marketing & Communication, Two-Wheeler & Powersports Division, Bosch Corporation Japan
Block spoke about advanced safety systems that go beyond ABS. Before 2007, ABS uptake was below 10% in both the EU and Japan because systems at the time were bulky and expensive. Since then great advances have been made to reduce the weight to about 400 grams and the costs. These factors, combined with changes in public perceptions and regulations that either made ABS compulsory or encouraged the technology has resulted in an increase in ABS installations to 50% of motorcycles in Europe and 44% in Japan.
Bosch is now working on technological innovations beyond ABS such as motorcycle stability control, which uses ABS combined with sensors to optimise brake force distribution when turning corners and provides dynamic acceleration even in difficult road conditions.
In addition, ultra-sonic sensors can detect vehicles in bind spots and warn the rider using a warning light in the mirror.
Like cars, motorcycles can also be fitted with automatic emergency call systems. Sensors detect when an accident has happened, which triggers an automated call to emergency services and provides coordinates. This would be especially valuable in the event of an accident in a rural area when no one is around or the motorcycle is no longer on the road nor visible to other passing vehicles.
Bosch is also developing connected technologies connecting bikers to cloud-based systems to provide information on dangerous sections of road. This also has potential for tracking stolen vehicles by the police.
Final panel discussion
On a question of the cost-benefit analysis of ABS, Bosch recently gave a presentation to the European Commission showed that the benefits of ABS are worth the costs. Moreover, the full benefits of ABS from a reduction in accidents and therefore lower emergency service and medical costs, which although difficult to quantify, should nevertheless also be considered.
Panelists concluded that the intention of driver assistance systems is to intervene at the last minute and not to replace the driver. While 98-99% of technological issues have been resolved to enable fully-autonomous cars, that last gap of 1-2% in terms of latency, accuracy and reliability is the most difficult to close. Car makers are therefore working towards eliminating this gap. In addition, other industry players need to contribute in areas such as improving mapping and providing absolutely reliable and fast mobile internet.